Blue Economy Library

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This project had a three folded aim; to elucidate the current state and the possibilities for certifying wetlands as carbon credit sources under the Voluntary Carbon Standard. To enlarge the knowledge about the parameters in wetlands that give insight in carbon sequestration and to apply this knowledge on the Azraq wetland reserve to determine if circumstances are present to saturate CO2 in the form of peat. Wetland Carbon Trade - Annemiek Hermans, Jacob van Oosterhout, Van Hall Larenstein University of applied science, Leeuwarden, Netherlands, 2010 [Published: 2010]
Markets & Trade, Global
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This sheet introduces the concept and tools of economic valuation and demonstrates the use of this concept in MPA management. Economic Valuation of Marine Protected Areas - IUCN, IUCN Eastern African Regional Programme, Nairobi, Kenya, 2004 [Published: 2004]
Production & Utilisation, Global
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The industries linked to the uses of a large marine ecosystem (LME) have a substantial influence on contiguous coastal economies. In this paper an estimate of the economic activity of U.S. marine sectors associated with the Northeast Shelf LME is provided.  Economic Activity Associated with the Northeast Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem: Application of an Input-Output Approach - P. Hoagland, D. Jin, E. Thunberg, S. Steinback, 2005 [Published: 2005]
Production & Utilisation, Americas
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Poaching activities in South Africa have targeted the lucrative abalone industry. Dramatic cuts in the total allowable catch since late 1996, with up to 90% reductions in key areas, have placed the long-term sustainability of the fishery in question. A criminological study of abalone poaching in a community where both the legal and illegal industries are centred has clearly illustrated both the severity and the complexity of the problem. A case study of abalone poaching in South Africa and its impact on fisheries management  - Hauck, M., and Sweijd, N. A. 1999. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 56: 1024–1032. [Published: 1999]
Production & Utilisation, Africa
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On 14 September 2014, new rules came in place for the international trade in five shark species and all manta rays. But how to concretely implement these rules applicable to valuable, highly mobile, and transboundary marine residents?  Getting sharks and manta rays ready for CITES - John E. Scanlon, Haruko Okusu, BIORES, Volume 8, ICTSD, 30 September 2014 [Published: 2014]
Markets & Trade, Global
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This think-piece provides a comparative legal analysis of measures and initiatives to combat illegal fishing, and concludes with recommendations for governments, international organisations, private actors, and the global community. Trade-Related Measures to Address Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing - Young, Margaret, E15Initiative, Geneva, International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) and World Economic Forum, 2015 [Published: 2015]
Markets & Trade, Global
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Coral reef ecosystems provide many functions, services and goods to coastal populations, especially in the developing world. A variety of anthropogenic practices threatens reef health and therefore jeopardises the benefits flowing from these services and goods.  Economic valuation can help to shed light on the importance of the services and goods by ‘getting some of the numbers on the table’. Valuation techniques are discussed and a summary of economic studies on coral reefs is presented in this report.  Coral Reefs: Their Functions, Threats and Economic Value - Herman Cesar, Cesar Environmental Economics Consulting, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2000 [Published: 2000]
Production & Utilisation, Global
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The United States of America submitted a discussion document (CoP 12 Doc. 45) to the CITES Secretariat requesting that the issue of declining sea cucumber stocks be discussed by the Conference of Parties in Chile, in November 2002. The objective was to address the fundamental question of whether a CITES Appendix II listing is appropriate for and can contribute to the conservation of sea cucumbers. Conservation strategies for sea cucumbers - A.W. Bruckner, K.A. Johnson, J.D. Field, May 2003 [Published: 2003]
Production & Utilisation, Global
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The genesis of Florida Coastal Environmental Resources: A Guide to Economic Valuation and Impact Analysis was a workshop sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in 1991. The workshop brought together state and local coastal and marine planners and representatives from non-governmental organizations and industry who were concerned with identifying, prioritizing, and incorporating social science research into NOAA’s coastal ocean science research program. Florida Coastal Environmental Resources: A Guide to Economic Valuation and Impact Analysis - David Letson, J. Walter Milon (eds.), Florida Sea Grant College Program, Florida, USA, 2002 [Published: 2002]
Policy, Americas
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This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study on diver demand for visiting a marine sanctuary in the Philippines. It reports the results of a pilot survey among international divers on their maximum willingness to pay (WTP) to enter a marine sanctuary. Furthermore, it identifies factors that affect the level of WTP. Finally, it estimates potential revenues from entrance fee collection.
  Divers’ willingness to pay to visit marine sanctuaries: an exploratory study - Tijen Arina, Randall A. Kramerb, World Bank, Washington DC, USA, Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences, Duke University, USA, Elsevier, 2002 [Published: 2002]
Guidelines & Case Studies, Asia
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