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With data collected over the last six years (2008-2013), this paper attempts to answer two questions: 1) What is the relationship between conservation investments and the enabling conditions needed to achieve conservation outcomes? 2) Does stable funding correlate with a stable or improving deforestation rate? Results from analysis of this data suggest that regular, sustained investment in protected area management resulted in a statistically significant decline in deforestation rates in and around these protected areas. Additionally, we find that higher scores on management effectiveness were associated with lower deforestation rates. This suggests that monitoring the enabling conditions for effective protected area management provides a reasonable proxy for conservation outcomes as measured by changes in deforestation rates. These results make a compelling argument that Conservation Trust Funds are valuable tools to help protected areas deliver on their objectives and contribute to global conservation targets. Conservation Trust Funds, Protected Area Managment and Conservation Outcomes: Lessons from the Global Conservation Fund - C. Bonham et al, Parks Vol 20.2, 2014 [Published: 2014]
Guidelines, Global
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The supply side of conservation finance, namely the perspective of investors and their investment approaches, has recieved less attention in the literature. Certain aspects of the supply side have been studied in the wider context of impact investing, in particular in Imprint Capital (2012), JPMorgan Chase/GIIN (2013) and World Economic Forum (2013). This report further analyzes the investor perspective in conservation finance and attempts to bring together the demand side (i.e., the need for conservation funding) and the supply side (i.e., the availability of investments with conservation impact). Conservation Finance: Moving beyond donor funding toward an investor-driven approach -  Fabian Huwyler: Credit Suisse, Jürg Käppeli: McKinsey & Company, Katharina Serafimova: WWF Switzerland, Eric Swanson: WWF US, John Tobin: Credit Suisse, Credit Suisse AG, World Wildlife Fund, McKinsey & Company, January 2014 [Published: 2014]
Guidelines, Global
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The aim of BIOFIN, and the purpose of the BIOFIN Workbook, is to help countries chart their own new development pathway by assessing and mobilizing the financial resources required to fully implement the strategies within their NBSAP, with an eye toward the direct contributions these strategies can make toward attaining national sustainable development goals. The Biofin Workbook: A Tool to Mobilize Financial Resources for Biodiversity and Development - UNDP,  New York: United Nations Development Programme, 2014 [Published: 2014]
Guidelines, Global
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To provide donors and partners with the information needed to inform and assess the benefits of channeling funds specifically into one or the other financial mechanism, the Conservation
Finance Alliance (CFA), with support from Instituto Semeia, Linden Trust for Conservation, Fondation Internationale du Banc d’Arguin (FIBA), the French Agency for Development (AFD) and the French Global Environment Facility (FFEM), commissioned a two-phase comparative review of the advantages and disadvantages of financing PA and PA systems through CTFs versus traditional short-term donor project support. The comparative review was based on an overall scoping exercise, interviews, a web survey and case studies. It focused on African and Latin American countries and CTF’s with endowments. Overall, the review provides good evidence that using a combination of approaches offers the best investment option. Sustainable Financing of Protected Areas: Conservation Trust Funds and Projects - Conservation Finance Alliance (CFA), October 2014 [Published: 2014]
Guidelines, Protected Areas, Global
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Cette étude est donc destinée à améliorer le reporting des entreprises sur le sujet de la biodiversité. Elle commence par clarifier le sens des expressions « reportingbiodiversité » et
« indicateurs de biodiversité ». Dans un second temps, elle dresse de manière exhaustive la liste des dispositions juridiques que les entreprises françaises doivent appliquer en matière de communication d’informations relatives à la biodiversité. L’étude rappelle ensuite les principaux travaux de reporting réalisés à diverses échelles sur le sujet de la biodiversité et les préconisations adressées aux entreprises par certains référentiels internationaux et nationaux. Enfin, dans la dernière partie, l’UICN France fournit des recommandations pour rédiger un reporting biodiversité de qualité. Applicables quel que soit le pays, le contexte juridique et le secteur d’activité, elles portent à la fois sur le périmètre des documents de reporting biodiversité et sur les sujets qu’il convient de traiter. Le Reporting Biodiversité des Entreprises et ses Indicateurs - UICN France, Paris, France, 2014 [Published: 2014]
Guidelines, Global
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Park Bonds are a new type of green financial instrument intended to fund conservation by offering a Triple-A credit rating to investors and a low (below 2 per cent) coupon rate. They could be issued by an International Trust Fund for Protected Areas (ITFPA), either hosted by a Multilateral Development Agency such as the World Bank or the Global Environment  facility (GEF), or set up as an ad hoc institution. Conservation projects would not have to generate income to repay the Park Bonds, as currently proposed with Forest Bonds or Green Bonds, but rather the ITFPA, tasked with promoting ethical financing. Park Bonds: A New Mechanism to Secure the Long-Term Financing of Protected Area Networks - Benjamin Landreau, Green Eco Land, April 2014 [Published: 2014]
Guidelines, Global
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Protected areas' financial sustainability is critical for improving their effectiveness in conserving biodiversity. This paper aims to estimate visitors'willingness to pay (WTP) higher entry fees to access the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal, determine variables influencing their WTP decisions, and explore strategies for diversifying ACA's finance mechanisms.  Diversifying finance mechanisms for protected areas capitalizing on untapped revenues - Nabin Baral, Anal Dhungana, Forest Policy and Economics, 13 January 2014 [Published: 2014]
Guidelines, Protected Areas, Recreation and Tourism, Asia
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The continuing disappearance of Earth’s last healthy ecosystems, on land and in the oceans, is sadly no longer news. What is news is that saving these ecosystems is affordable and even profitable. An investor-driven approach to conservation finance has the potential to preserve these vital areas, and with them the planet’s natural capital stock of clean air, fresh water and species diversity. Making Conservation Finance Investable - Fabian Huwyler, Juerg Kaeppeli, Katharina Serafimova, Eric Swanson, & John Tobin, Stanford University, 21 January 2014 [Published: 2014]
Guidelines, Global
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This study is part of the cross-country analysis of the fiscal and resource gap of protected areas in the South East Asian region. It focused on the protected areas in the Philippines that are under the jurisdiction of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). Using mail and field interviews of the Protected Area Superintendent (PASu) or senior DENR officials, the study looked into the extent of internal and external threats to protected areas (PA) in 16 regions of the country as represented by the population of settlements outside PAs, inhabitants within PAs, number of visitors, and length of roads and trails. The management responses to these threats, indicated by the number of staff filled up by the DENR and the budget allocated by the national government, were also examined. Fiscal Gap and Financing Protected Areas in the Philippines - Alexander D. Anda, Jr., Marlon M. Atienza, Economy and Environment for Southeast Asia, October 2013 [Published: 2013]
Guidelines, Protected Areas, Asia
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Many commentators suggest that tourism could help fund the ever growing number of protected areas. The traditional reliance on government sources to support protected areas is increasingly untenable, in both the developed and developing world. This paper reviews the relationship between tourism and protected areas to assess opportunities for sustainable funding to assure effective stewardship. It explores a range of innovative and creative alternative funding mechanisms which could be consistent with a positive evolving relationship between tourism and protected areas. An outline classification of four protected area archetypes for management and funding purposes is suggested, based on a combination of visitation and biodiversity levels. Protected areas, conservation and tourism – financing the sustainable dream - Paul Anthony Whitelaw, Brian E.M. King & Denis Tolkach, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2014 [Published: 2013]
Guidelines, Protected Areas, Recreation and Tourism, Global
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