Business and Finance Library

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The purpose of this scorecard is to assist governments, donors and NGOs to investigate and record significant aspects of a PA financing system – its accounts and its underlying structural foundations – to show both its current health and status and to indicate if the system is holistically moving over the long-term towards an improved financial situation. The scorecard is designed for national systems of PAs but could be used by sub-national eg state, regional or municipal or networks of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Financial Sustainability Scorecard for National Systems of Protected Areas (2nd Edition) - UNDP, New York, January 2010 [Published: 2010]
Conservation Management, Guidelines, Protected Areas, Global
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This groundbreaking Report compares and aggregates official financial data and qualitative insights about the health of Protected Area (PA) financial sustainability for 20 Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries. Locally and regionally, the PAs analysed provide direct and indirect benefits over their combined area for a population of 564 million people in these 20 countries. Globally, LAC PA systems contain and support many important benefits in the areas of biodiversity conservation, human development, and, increasingly, ecosystems services to manage carbon sequestration. Financial Sustainability of Protected Areas in Latin America and the Caribbean: Investment Policy Guidance - Andrew Bovarnick et al, UNDP, 2010 [Published: 2010]
Conservation Management, Policy, Global
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This study presents a synthesis of experience across a range of sectors to develop more sustainable business models for biodiversity conservation, identifies key success factors, and outlines a new approach to building a biodiversity business that combines policy innovation, business development assistance, and financial support. New Business Models for Biodiversity Conservation - Joshua Bishop, Sachin Kapila, Frank Hicks, Paul Mitchell, Francis Vorhies, Journal of Sustainable Forestry, Taylor & Francis Group, 2009 [Published: 2009]
Guidelines, Global
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There are numerous opportunities within the European Union (EU) to create Pro-Biodiversity Business (PBB) that can generate positive financial returns, as well as real and measurable biodiversity benefits. This handbook and the wider project of which it is a part, is focussed on Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and provides guidance for developing and implementing PBB activities and projects with a particular focus (although not restricted to) on the European Union's Natura 2000 ecological network. It is primarily aimed at national authorities of EU Member States responsible for nature conservation, rural development and SME development; at financial intermediaries; and at potential entrepreneurs. RSPB (2009) Handbook for Developing and Implementing Pro-Biodiversity Projects- an output from the EC Biodiversity Technical Assistance Unit project, Sandy, UK [Published: 2009]
Guidelines, Europe
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Conservation: An Investment That Pays—like TPL’s other reports on the economic benefits of parks and conservation—is intended to help agency personnel and community conservationists make the case for conservation as a long-term economic investment. Too often, the argument that creating parks and conserving land is too expensive, especially in hard economic times, is still used. It is hoped that the research and many examples cited in the report will help promote conservation for its many benefits, including the boost parks and open space can give to a community’s bottom line. Conservation: An Investment That Pays - Erica Gies, The Trust for Public Land, San Fransisco, CA, 2009 [Published: 2009]
Guidelines, Global
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This study investigates the extent to which projects - which, according to the WWF, conserve biological diversity - can be run in an economically profitable way, so that they attract the necessary capital from private investors (‘sustainable investments’). The result is an innovative entrepreneurial concept for preserving biological diversity that invests in privately run, profit-orientated nature conservation projects worldwide. Sustainable Investments for Conservation: The Business Case for Biodiversity - WWF, Gland, Switzerland, 2007 [Published: 2007]
Conservation Management, Guidelines, Global
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One of the Parks in Peril Program tasks has been designing and implementing protected area strategies to achieve financial sustainability—at the site and system levels. These strategies have included applying financial mechanisms, such as debt-for-nature swaps, conservation trust funds, tourism fees, and alliances with international financial organization, among others. This bulletin describes the protected area financial planning process and presents some of the financial mechanisms used to generate resources to finance conservation. Conservation Finance: Strategies for Protected Areas and Protected Area Systems - Fernández-Baca, J.C., S.E. Hamberg and A.S. Martin, Innovations in Conservation Series for the Parks in Peril Program,  Arlington, VA, USA: The Nature Conservancy, 2007 [Published: 2007]
Conservation Management, Guidelines, Protected Areas, Global
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This report presents a summary of the presentation and the main outputs from the working groups of the training course "Business Planning for Protected Areas in Central, Southern and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independant States", June 14th to 17th, 2007 on the Isle of Vilm.  Business Planning for Protected Areas in Central, Southern and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independant States - Lee Thomas & Andrea Burmester, Work Shop Report, German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, International Academy for Nature Conservation, Isle of Vilm, June 14th to 17th, 2007 [Published: 2007]
Conservation Management, Guidelines, Protected Areas, Global
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A number of relatively simple, market-based mechanisms – known collectively as tourism user fees (TUFs) ––can gather significant revenues from tourism-based activities, which can then be directed toward supporting PAs and other conservation efforts. The fees partially reflect the cost of supplying recreational services, the demand for natural resources, and the value that visitors place on their experience at the site. The direct link between maintaining natural areas and income from user fees is a strong economic incentive for conservation. Sustainable Finance for Protected Areas: Tourism-Based User Fees, From the Conservation Finance Guide: A Joint Project of the Conservation Finance Alliance - Alain Lambert et al, The Nature Conservancy, 2004 [Published: 2004]
Conservation Management, Guidelines, Protected Areas, Recreation and Tourism, Global
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In Malawi the private sector has invested in such areas as advocating legalization of protected areas, ecotourism, conducting ecological research and monitoring, environmental education, infrastructure development, law-enforcement and re-introduction and management of game. However, the degree of private sector involvement has been limited to a few stakeholders, those directly or indirectly affected by wildlife, those deriving benefits from wildlife such as tourism companies, and those with vested interests in wildlife conservation such as conservation organizations and “green companies”. Private investments have focused on specific individual protected areas according to the particular interest of the private investor. Even though the government has put in place institutional arrangements, incentives and mechanisms to attract private investments and ensure that investments benefit protected areas, these are still in their infancy. While there is high potential for private investments to support protected areas, most private investors are neither aware nor sure about how they can invest in protected areas. Private Investments to Support Protected Areas: Experiences from Malawi - Daulos D.C. Mauambeta, Wildlife and Environmental Society of Malawi, Vth World Parks Congress: Sustainable Finance Stream September 2003, Durban, South Africa [Published: 2003]
Case Studies, Protected Areas, Africa
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