VCA Guidance

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As its title suggests, this study sets out to investigate and present alternative ways to support private land conservation in the EU. This means that it dedicates comparatively little attention to “conventional” approaches, such as public subsidies for private land users (e.g. agri-environmental payment schemes), regulatory stipulations that limit the use of private land (e.g. species conservation law or environmental impact assessments) or participatory management planning processes for protected areas in private ownership. Instead, this study focuses on the more “exotic”, but nevertheless promising tools for private land conservation. As will be shown, their exoticism is mostly owned to the fact that their application is not yet widely distributed in the EU, but does not mean that their underlying concepts are far-fetched. It is hoped that the case studies presented here will serve as role models that lead to a wider application of private land conservation policies in the EU.Definition of key terms. Alternative Ways to Support Private Land Conservation - Report to the European Commission, 2015 [Published: 2015]
Conservation Management, Europe
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The purpose of this scorecard is to assist governments, donors and NGOs to investigate and record significant aspects of a PA financing system – its accounts and its underlying structural foundations – to show both its current health and status and to indicate if the system is holistically moving over the long-term towards an improved financial situation. The scorecard is designed for national systems of PAs but could be used by sub-national eg state, regional or municipal or networks of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Financial Sustainability Scorecard for National Systems of Protected Areas (2nd Edition) - UNDP, New York, January 2010 [Published: 2010]
Conservation Management, Guidelines, Protected Areas, Global
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This groundbreaking Report compares and aggregates official financial data and qualitative insights about the health of Protected Area (PA) financial sustainability for 20 Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries. Locally and regionally, the PAs analysed provide direct and indirect benefits over their combined area for a population of 564 million people in these 20 countries. Globally, LAC PA systems contain and support many important benefits in the areas of biodiversity conservation, human development, and, increasingly, ecosystems services to manage carbon sequestration. Financial Sustainability of Protected Areas in Latin America and the Caribbean: Investment Policy Guidance - Andrew Bovarnick et al, UNDP, 2010 [Published: 2010]
Conservation Management, Policy, Global
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Co-managed MPAs must strike a difficult balance between development and conservation objectives and although terrestrial co-management initiatives for parks and reserves have been extensively studied, few evaluations have been conducted of co-managed MPAs. Mohéli Marine Park was the first MPA to be established in the Comoros in 2001. Initially regarded as a model for co-management of marine resources, the MPA is now operating at a vastly reduced capacity following an end to external funding sources. This study assessed current perceptions of local stakeholders of the MPA to evaluate the successes and challenges of the co-management approach. [Published: 2008]
Conservation Management, Protected Areas, Africa
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This study investigates the extent to which projects - which, according to the WWF, conserve biological diversity - can be run in an economically profitable way, so that they attract the necessary capital from private investors (‘sustainable investments’). The result is an innovative entrepreneurial concept for preserving biological diversity that invests in privately run, profit-orientated nature conservation projects worldwide. Sustainable Investments for Conservation: The Business Case for Biodiversity - WWF, Gland, Switzerland, 2007 [Published: 2007]
Conservation Management, Guidelines, Global
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One of the Parks in Peril Program tasks has been designing and implementing protected area strategies to achieve financial sustainability—at the site and system levels. These strategies have included applying financial mechanisms, such as debt-for-nature swaps, conservation trust funds, tourism fees, and alliances with international financial organization, among others. This bulletin describes the protected area financial planning process and presents some of the financial mechanisms used to generate resources to finance conservation. Conservation Finance: Strategies for Protected Areas and Protected Area Systems - Fernández-Baca, J.C., S.E. Hamberg and A.S. Martin, Innovations in Conservation Series for the Parks in Peril Program,  Arlington, VA, USA: The Nature Conservancy, 2007 [Published: 2007]
Conservation Management, Guidelines, Protected Areas, Global
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This report presents a summary of the presentation and the main outputs from the working groups of the training course "Business Planning for Protected Areas in Central, Southern and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independant States", June 14th to 17th, 2007 on the Isle of Vilm.  Business Planning for Protected Areas in Central, Southern and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independant States - Lee Thomas & Andrea Burmester, Work Shop Report, German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, International Academy for Nature Conservation, Isle of Vilm, June 14th to 17th, 2007 [Published: 2007]
Conservation Management, Guidelines, Protected Areas, Global
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This report is based on a review of available literature and consultation with protected area experts around the world. It seeks to identify lessons from recent experience on the key factors which influence the success of different financing mechanisms, and to provide recommendations for improving the future sustainability, efficiency and effectiveness of PA financing. The analysis is supported by 29 case studies – summarised in boxes throughout the text – which provide concrete examples of how specific financing mechanisms are being used in a range of contexts. The case studies are extracted mainly from recent publications. They were selected as typical illustrations of particular financing issues and are not intended as illustrations of “best practice” in PA financing. Sustainable Financing of Protected Areas: A global review of challenges and options - Emerton, L., Bishop, J. and Thomas, L., IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, 2006 [Published: 2006]
Conservation Management, Global
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A number of relatively simple, market-based mechanisms – known collectively as tourism user fees (TUFs) ––can gather significant revenues from tourism-based activities, which can then be directed toward supporting PAs and other conservation efforts. The fees partially reflect the cost of supplying recreational services, the demand for natural resources, and the value that visitors place on their experience at the site. The direct link between maintaining natural areas and income from user fees is a strong economic incentive for conservation. Sustainable Finance for Protected Areas: Tourism-Based User Fees, From the Conservation Finance Guide: A Joint Project of the Conservation Finance Alliance - Alain Lambert et al, The Nature Conservancy, 2004 [Published: 2004]
Conservation Management, Guidelines, Protected Areas, Recreation and Tourism, Global
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Management Planning is an essential step towards ensuring the proper management of protected areas. This is particularly so as we move forward to the 21st century and face increasing complexities in the management of our parks and reserves. The essential steps of good management planning embracing current best practice are not always understood by park agencies or planning practitioners. These Guidelines, which have been compiled by two very experienced planners, aim to clarify the best practices for good management planning of protected areas. Guidelines for Management Planning of Protected Areas - Thomas, Lee and Middleton, Julie, IUCN Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, 2003   [Published: 2003]
Conservation Management, Protected Areas, Global
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