VCA Guidance

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This report is based on a review of available literature and consultation with protected area experts around the world. It seeks to identify lessons from recent experience on the key factors which influence the success of different financing mechanisms, and to provide recommendations for improving the future sustainability, efficiency and effectiveness of PA financing. The analysis is supported by 29 case studies – summarised in boxes throughout the text – which provide concrete examples of how specific financing mechanisms are being used in a range of contexts. The case studies are extracted mainly from recent publications. They were selected as typical illustrations of particular financing issues and are not intended as illustrations of “best practice” in PA financing. Sustainable Financing of Protected Areas: A global review of challenges and options - Emerton, L., Bishop, J. and Thomas, L., IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, 2006 [Published: 2006]
Conservation Management, Global
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A number of relatively simple, market-based mechanisms – known collectively as tourism user fees (TUFs) ––can gather significant revenues from tourism-based activities, which can then be directed toward supporting PAs and other conservation efforts. The fees partially reflect the cost of supplying recreational services, the demand for natural resources, and the value that visitors place on their experience at the site. The direct link between maintaining natural areas and income from user fees is a strong economic incentive for conservation. Sustainable Finance for Protected Areas: Tourism-Based User Fees, From the Conservation Finance Guide: A Joint Project of the Conservation Finance Alliance - Alain Lambert et al, The Nature Conservancy, 2004 [Published: 2004]
Conservation Management, Guidelines, Protected Areas, Recreation and Tourism, Global
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Management Planning is an essential step towards ensuring the proper management of protected areas. This is particularly so as we move forward to the 21st century and face increasing complexities in the management of our parks and reserves. The essential steps of good management planning embracing current best practice are not always understood by park agencies or planning practitioners. These Guidelines, which have been compiled by two very experienced planners, aim to clarify the best practices for good management planning of protected areas. Guidelines for Management Planning of Protected Areas - Thomas, Lee and Middleton, Julie, IUCN Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK, 2003   [Published: 2003]
Conservation Management, Protected Areas, Global
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The Guide to Conservation Finance provides an overview of conservation financing mechanisms that have been implemented throughout the world. The guide informs field practitioners about which of the available financing mechanisms they could apply to achieve their conservation aims. The various mechanisms are illustrated with short case studies that demonstrate both successes and challenges. In addition, the guide provides a list of resources and Web links for further exploration of the conservation finance field. Guide to Conservation Finance - WWF, 2009 [Published: 2009]
Conservation Management, Guidelines, Global
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This Worksheet provides guidance in support of the Planning Policy Statement on Eco-towns, identifying the essential steps required to ensure that their design, development and long-term management results in a sustained positive outcome for biodiversity. Biodiversity Positive: Eco-towns Biodiversity Worksheet - Town and Country Planning Assosciation, London, UK, December 2009 [Published: 2009]
Conservation Management, Global
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With support from The Nature Conservancy and other members of the CFA (Conservation Finance Alliance), this new publication includes practical, accessible, and easy to use methods for improving financial planning, and a road map for the implementation of business-oriented financial plans for the national systems of protected areas. Financial Planning for National Systems of Protected Areas: Guidelines and Early Lessons - Flores, M., Rivero, G., León, F., Chan, G., et al., The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia, US, 2008 [Published: 2008]
Conservation Management, Protected Areas, Global
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Reporting is a tool for sharing information with stakeholders about an organization’s activities, impacts, and performance in relation to biodiversity. The Biodiversity Resource Document aims to:
• assist reporting organizations in understanding the issue of biodiversity and its relationship to their activities and operations;
• offer insights on specific issues and challenges related to biodiversity reporting;
• discuss how the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) Sustainability Reporting Guidelines can be used to report on biodiversity; and
• provide information resources and references to help organizations with their biodiversity reporting. Biodiversity a GRI Reporting Resource - Global Reporting Initiative,  January 2007 [Published: 2007]
Conservation Management, Global
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This report aims to contribute to the ongoing discussion about how to increase the flows of international funds for biodiversity conservation. This discussion has figured in the agenda of all major CBD forums since the Convention’s inception in 1992. The funding challenge has also been a concern of the conservation movement and has attracted the interest of the UN General Assembly, UN agencies, academics, and international financial institutions, which have focused both on how to finance biodiversity conservation and on the broader issue of how to finance the provision of global public goods. A Review of Innovative International Financial Mechanisms for Biodiversity Conservation - P. Gutman, S. Davidson, WWF-MPO, 31, October, 2007 [Published: 2007]
Conservation Management, Global
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The state of conservancies report consolidates information and data on conservancies based on key national indicators. The report forms our first baseline for measuring achievements in years ahead and an opportunity for conservancies to gain national and international visibility to enlist support from Kenyans and Partners.

Kenya Wildlife Conservancies Association. (2016). State of Wildlife Conservancies in Kenya Report 2016. [Published: 2016]
Habitat Conservation, Guidelines & Case Studies, Africa
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The guidance provided in this Part 3: Biodiversity Impact Assessment Toolbox complements Part 1: Core Guidance for Project Proponents and Part 2: Social Impact Assessment Toolbox. Biodiversity impact assessment requires expert inputs in the design and other aspects of monitoring as described in Section 5, and local participation in identifying the biodiversity objectives of a project and understanding likely biodiversity effects of interventions is usually essential. Biodiversity impacts often result in livelihood impacts as well, and for these reasons the guidance in Part 2 is also relevant to Part 3. Social and Biodiversity Impact Assessment are best done in an integrated way. 

Pitman, N. 2011. Social and Biodiversity Impact Assessment Manual for REDD+ Projects: Part 3 – Biodiversity Impact Assessment Toolbox.  Forest Trends, Climate, Community & Biodiversity Alliance, Rainforest Alliance and Fauna & Flora International. Washington, DC. [Published: 2011]
Conservation Management, Guidelines, Global
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