Blue Economy Library

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MPAs are unlikely to be sustainable unless they make economic sense and generate benefits that are at least equal to the costs they incur. It is important that MPA managers have a basic understanding of the economic value of the sites for which they are responsible. This sheet introduces the concept and tools of economic valuation and demonstrates the use of this concept in MPA management [Published: 2018]
Blue Economy, Africa
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The Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem (GCLME) which is one of the world's most productive marine areas include the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) of sixteen countries, such as Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo and Sierra Leone. The area is an important global region of marine biological diversity supporting the livelihood of approximately 40% of the region's 280 million people living in the coastal areas. However, despite its resources and support to livelihood systems, the GCLME is facing a lot of challenging problems, including population explosion and urbanisation, fisheries depletion, water pollution, public health amongst others as it will be discussed in this article. The GEF project “combating living resources depletion and coastal area degradation in the Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem through ecosystem-based regional actions” implemented by UNIDO aims to reverse these trends and to achieve long-term development goals. These include restore degraded habitats and reduce land and ship-based pollution by establishing a regional management framework for sustainable use of living and non-living resources in the GCLME, through an economic valuation of ecosystems.  [Published: 2018]
Blue Economy, Africa
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This project had a three folded aim; to elucidate the current state and the possibilities for certifying wetlands as carbon credit sources under the Voluntary Carbon Standard. To enlarge the knowledge about the parameters in wetlands that give insight in carbon sequestration and to apply this knowledge on the Azraq wetland reserve to determine if circumstances are present to saturate CO2 in the form of peat. Wetland Carbon Trade - Annemiek Hermans, Jacob van Oosterhout, Van Hall Larenstein University of applied science, Leeuwarden, Netherlands, 2010 [Published: 2010]
Markets & Trade, Global
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This sheet introduces the concept and tools of economic valuation and demonstrates the use of this concept in MPA management. Economic Valuation of Marine Protected Areas - IUCN, IUCN Eastern African Regional Programme, Nairobi, Kenya, 2004 [Published: 2004]
Production & Utilisation, Global
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The industries linked to the uses of a large marine ecosystem (LME) have a substantial influence on contiguous coastal economies. In this paper an estimate of the economic activity of U.S. marine sectors associated with the Northeast Shelf LME is provided.  Economic Activity Associated with the Northeast Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem: Application of an Input-Output Approach - P. Hoagland, D. Jin, E. Thunberg, S. Steinback, 2005 [Published: 2005]
Production & Utilisation, Americas
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Poaching activities in South Africa have targeted the lucrative abalone industry. Dramatic cuts in the total allowable catch since late 1996, with up to 90% reductions in key areas, have placed the long-term sustainability of the fishery in question. A criminological study of abalone poaching in a community where both the legal and illegal industries are centred has clearly illustrated both the severity and the complexity of the problem. A case study of abalone poaching in South Africa and its impact on fisheries management  - Hauck, M., and Sweijd, N. A. 1999. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 56: 1024–1032. [Published: 1999]
Guidelines & Case Studies, Africa
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On 14 September 2014, new rules came in place for the international trade in five shark species and all manta rays. But how to concretely implement these rules applicable to valuable, highly mobile, and transboundary marine residents?  Getting sharks and manta rays ready for CITES - John E. Scanlon, Haruko Okusu, BIORES, Volume 8, ICTSD, 30 September 2014 [Published: 2014]
Markets & Trade, Global
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This think-piece provides a comparative legal analysis of measures and initiatives to combat illegal fishing, and concludes with recommendations for governments, international organisations, private actors, and the global community. Trade-Related Measures to Address Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing - Young, Margaret, E15Initiative, Geneva, International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) and World Economic Forum, 2015 [Published: 2015]
Markets & Trade, Global
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Coral reef ecosystems provide many functions, services and goods to coastal populations, especially in the developing world. A variety of anthropogenic practices threatens reef health and therefore jeopardises the benefits flowing from these services and goods.  Economic valuation can help to shed light on the importance of the services and goods by ‘getting some of the numbers on the table’. Valuation techniques are discussed and a summary of economic studies on coral reefs is presented in this report.  Coral Reefs: Their Functions, Threats and Economic Value - Herman Cesar, Cesar Environmental Economics Consulting, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2000 [Published: 2000]
Production & Utilisation, Global
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The United States of America submitted a discussion document (CoP 12 Doc. 45) to the CITES Secretariat requesting that the issue of declining sea cucumber stocks be discussed by the Conference of Parties in Chile, in November 2002. The objective was to address the fundamental question of whether a CITES Appendix II listing is appropriate for and can contribute to the conservation of sea cucumbers. Conservation strategies for sea cucumbers - A.W. Bruckner, K.A. Johnson, J.D. Field, May 2003 [Published: 2003]
Production & Utilisation, Global
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